TUFF recognizes the critical role of Federal funding for science and engineering at U.S. universities as a key driver of economic development and innovation. Science and engineering R&D grew by $7.2 billion from 2002 to 2016, reaching more than $31.6 billion. This represents a 29.4 percent increase during the period, or approximately 2.0 percent per year, according to a State Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) analysis of data from the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. Among states, California ($4.3 billion), New York ($2.4 billion), and Maryland ($2.3 billion) received the most in federal funds for science and engineering R&D in 2016, while Baltimore ($2.0 billion), New York City ($1.7 billion), and Boston ($1.3 billion) led among metropolitan areas. Read more about the distribution of Federal R&D funding here.